Category Archives: Visual Studio

Cloud enabled Commodore 64: Part II – Development Environment

After devising a high-level design for my idea, I needed to take care of more mundane things, starting with setting up the development environment. First, I had to find out if using a Commodore 64 emulator for testing and development was an option. I wanted to rely on the emulator as much as possible to speed up the development time. The main two concerns I had were:

  • would the emulator even support external devices?
  • if, the above was true and my idea worked on the emulator, would it work on real hardware

Vice-64 was the most advanced and mature Commodore 64 emulator I knew of. I used it previously in some of my projects (e.g. Vintage Studio) and to occasionally play some of my favorite games but never with any external hardware. Looking at Settings gave me hope – I found that there were at least controls allowing to configure serial communication. After playing with the settings for a bit I was able to make Nova Term connect to a BBS via the C64-WIFI modem connected to my laptop via USB. This answered my first concern and assured that I would be able to code and test the entire solution on my laptop with maybe some additional debugging on the real C-64 at the very end. Another benefit of using Vice was access to the built-in debugging tools. They allow setting breakpoints and stepping through the code and the support for labels makes debugging much easier.

Next, I had to decide on which 6502 assembler to use. I found ca65 (a part of cc65 suite to be the best option. It has a lot of great features, has been around for a long time and has a lot of documentation as well as source code available on github. I was almost sure that VS Code was the safest bet to serve as my 6502 assembly editor as it has a ton of extensions. The main thing I was looking for was syntax highlighting and I quickly found the CA65 extension which did exactly what I was after. The extension also provides build tasks but I have not used them as I decided to go with make. Overall, the combination of Vice, VS Code, ca65 and make ended up making quite a productive environment where I could quickly build, launch and debug my project.

To handle the NodeMCU part I decided to stick to Arduino Studio. I knew that VSCode had an Arduino extension (heck, I even created one long time ago before Microsoft decided to occupy this space) but it tried to reformat my code the way I did not like and I didn’t want to spend the time on adjusting it to my liking. I also think I had some issues with uploading my sketch to the board while everything worked fine from Arduino Studio.

At the beginning I was able to test my NodeMCU code using screen. It was possible because the protocol I implemented was text based. Later, I switched to a fully binary protocol and using any general purpose solution was not an option, so I created a simple terminal in Python that was able to interpret and translate my commands and the responses from the module.

I used a standalone NodeMCU module for most development but occasionally tested my code against the C-64 WiFi’s NodeMCU module. Surprisingly, I found some slight differences between how the boards behaved immediately after booting and had to implement a simple workaround which ignored first few bytes received from the module.

For the SignalR part I just took the chat server I created for my other project. I ran it locally during the implementation and then deployed to Microsoft Azure for final testing and demo.

The final missing piece of my environment was actual hardware. I had a Commodore 64 that I know was working the last time I turned it on because it was when I fixed it. I also had a 1084S-D2 monitor which stopped working when I was testing my C-64. Fortunately, it turned out to be only the power switch. Replacing the switch brought the monitor back to life. I decided to go fully retro and had to acquire a 1541 disk drive – luckily I found a working one in decent condition on craigslist. I received a bunch of disks used with Commodore 64 from a colleague many years ago. Despite all these years in a closet almost all of them worked just fine. The only thing remaining was to transfer the compiled program to a disk which I did using a SD2IEC module.

Looking back I am really amazed how many technologies – both hardware and software – were involved in putting my solution together. Four programming languages, vintage and modern hardware, embedded programing, Cloud technologies and a variety of, mostly open source, tools. All this made this project a lot of fun. Next time we will take a closer look at the implementation.


Automatic Reconnection in the Swift SignalR Client

As of version 0.7.0 the Swift SignalR Client supports automatic reconnection. This means that, if configured, the client will try to re-establish the connection to the server if the connection was lost. This post explains how this feature works, how to enable it and what configuration options are available.

Automatic reconnects

There are many scenarios where restoring an interrupted connection automatically is important. For instance, mobile applications very often have to be able to deal with unstable network and it’s crucial for these apps to be resilient to network issues. Conceptually the solution to the problem is simple – when the connection is lost a new connection needs to be started. In case of the Swift SignalR Client, this could always be implemented by the code consuming the client (i.e. on the application side). It turns out however, that in practice, implementing this logic is quite hard. Given that this is a common request and is the implementation is tricky it made sense to add support for automatic reconnection to the client. An important thing to note however is that the client does not offer anything more than just restoring the connection. In other words, the client will make a few attempts to restart the connection if it was stopped due to an error but will not do anything more than that. If reconnecting succeeds the server will treat the connection as a completely new connection and will assign it a new connection id. The client will also not receive messages it might have missed when it was disconnected. Anyone who used the non-Core version of SignalR can notice that this a big change to how reconnection worked in the non-Core version where, upon reconnecting, the server would recognize that the client has reconnected and resend missed messages. This functionality can no longer be implemented in the client for the Core version of SignalR because it requires cooperation from the server side (e.g. the server needs to buffer messages) and that logic does not exist in the Core version of SignalR.

Automatic reconnection is disabled by default. The main reason for this is backward compatibility – existing applications did not expect the connection to try to reconnect automatically so, they could break if the feature was enabled by default. Automatic reconnection requires also a bit of additional work and handle new lifecycle events.


The easiest way to enable automatic reconnection is to use the new .withAutoReconnect() method available on the HubConnectionBuilder class.

When automatic reconnection is enabled the application may receive two additional events:

  • connectionWillReconnect – invoked when the connection was lost
  • connectionDidReconnect – invoked when the connection was successfully restored

By default, the client will make up to four attempts to restore the connection. The first attempt will be made immediately after the connection was lost. The next three attempts will take place respectively 2, 10 and 30 seconds after the previous unsuccessful attempt. If all four attempts are unsuccessful the client will give up, close the connection and invoke the connectionDidClose event.

When the connection is being restored the client will not allow to invoke any method that tries to send data to the server.

Connection is now restartable

Adding support for automatic reconnection made the connection restartable. Before, once the connection was stopped it was necessary to create a new instance to be able to connect to the server again. This is no longer the case – the same instance can be used to restart connection to the server after it was stopped. This could be especially useful when handling background/foreground transitions.

Advanced Scenarios

The default reconnect configuration can be customized. It is possible to change the number of attempts as well as the time intervals between the attempts. The easiest way to do this is to create a new instance of the DefaultReconnectPolicy class with an array of retry intervals and pass this policy to the .withAutoReconnect() method. The number of retry intervals in the array tells the client how many reconnect attempts it should make, while the interval values indicate the time to wait between the attempts.

If the default reconnect policy is not flexible enough it is possible to go even further and create a custom reconnect policy by creating a class that conforms to the ReconnectPolicy protocol. This protocol has just one method – nextAttemptInterval that takes a RetryContext and returns the time interval telling the client when the next reconnect attempt should happen. The RetryContext instance passed to the nextAttempInterval method contains information about the current reconnect – the time when the reconnect was initiated, the number of failed attempts so far and the original error that triggered the reconnect. To stop further reconnect attempts the nextAttempInterval method should return DispatchTimeInterval.never. To put the policy to work the policy needs to be passed to the .withAutoReconnect() method when configuring the connection.

Backward Compatibility (a.k.a. Kill Switch)

As noted above, writing reconnect logic turned out to be quite tricky. It also required modifying existing code that is executed even when automatic reconnects are disabled. This created a risk of introducing issues into existing scenarios. In case of running into a bug like this it is possible to go back to the previous behavior by using the .withLegacyHttpConnection() method on the HubConnectionBuilder when creating a new hub connection.


These are pretty much all the details needed to be able to use automatic reconnection in the Swift SignalR Client. My hope is that automatic reconnection will make lives of developers much easier.

Entity Framework 6 Easter of Love

While Entity Framework Core along with ASP.NET Core get all the hype today, Entity Framework 6 is still the workhorse of many applications running every day which won’t be converted to the Core world anytime soon, if at all. Because of this I decided to spend some time to give my EF extensions a small refresh to adapt to the changing landscape.


Some of my extensions were hosted on Codeplex. I do most of the work on Github these days and Github is nowadays a de facto standard for open source projects. Codeplex not only looks dated but is also missing a lot of features Github has (searching the code on Github is far from perfect but Codeplex does not offer it at all). All in all this turned out to be the right decision given that it was recently announced that Codeplex is being shutdown. Anyways, here is where my projects previously hosted on Codeplex found their new homes:

Updating projects

I developed most of my EF extensions before Visual Studio 2015 was released. I found that opening them in Visual Studio 2015 was not a good experience – Visual Studio would update project/solution files automatically leaving unwanted changes. Therefore, I updated solution files to the version compatible with Visual Studio 2015. I also moved to a newer version of XUnit which does not require installing an XUnit runner extension in Visual Studio to enable running tests. Even though the solution files are marked as Visual Studio 2015 compatible they can be opened just fine with Visual Studio 2017 which shipped in the meantime.

New versions

This is probably the most exciting: I released new versions of a few of my extensions.

2nd Level Cache for Entity Framework

2nd Level Cache (a.k.a. EFCache) 1.1.0 contains only one new feature. This feature will, however, make everyone’s life easier. Until now the default caching policy cached results for all queries. In the vast majority of cases this behavior is not desired (or plainly incorrect) so you had to create your own policy to limit caching only to results from selected tables. In EFCache 1.1.0 you can specify store entity sets (i.e. which correspond to tables in the database) for which the results should be cached when creating the default caching policy. As a result you no longer have to create your own policy if you want to control simple caching. This change is not breaking.

Store Functions for Entity Framework

I received a couple of community Pull Requests which are worth sharing so yesterday I published on NuGet the new new version of the Store Functions for Entity Framework (1.1.0) containing these contributions. pogi-b added support for Built-in functions so you can now map built-in store functions (e.g. FORMAT or MAP) and use them in your queries. PaulVrugt added ability to discover function stubs marked as private. The first change is not breaking. If you happened to have private function stubs that were not discovered before (a.k.a. dead code) they will be discovered now as a result of the second change.

EF6 CodeFirst View Generation T4 Template for C#

Visual Studio 2017 now requires extensions to use VSIX v3 format. The EF6 CodeFirst View Generation T4 Template for C# extension used format v1 and could not be installed in Visual Studio 2017. I updated the VSIX format to v3 and dropped support for Visual Studio 2010 and 2012.

Note: I have not updated other view generation templates for EF4/EF5 to work with Visual Studio 2017. If you need them to work with VS 2017 let me know and I will update.

Happy Easter!


Entity Framework View Generation Templates Updated for Visual Studio 2015

Entity Framework 7 may be around the corner and when it ships view generation will no longer be a concern because EF7 is not using views to abstract the database anymore. As of now, however, EF7 is still in beta and – as per the schedule – it will take another few months for it to be released. Even when it ships I don’t think many existing applications will ever move to EF7. In fact, there is still a lot of applications using EF5 or even EF4 that were never moved to EF6 and moving a pre-EF7 based app to EF7 may be even more difficult. In the meantime, Visual Studio 2015 was released. And while people not necessarily want to move their apps to use newer versions of dependencies many of them want to move to the latest available tooling. To make it possible I updated all the view generation templates so that they work with VS 2015. So, if you use or plan to use view generation templates in your applications download the latest version(s) from Visual Studio Gallery or install them directly from within Visual Studio. (Note that view generation templates in existing projects will continue to work in Visual Studio 2015 without this update. This update is required if you needed to add a new template to a project).

Crusader for trailing-whitespace-free code

For whatever reason I hate trailing whitespaces. It might be just my pet peeve (although unjustified conversions with the ‘as’ operator instead of using just regular cast in C# are the winner in this category) because ultimately it is not something that is very important but still, trailing whitespaces annoy me. Sadly, even though I hate trailing whitespaces I tend to introduce them. One of my colleagues, who would flag all of the occurrences of trailing whitespaces in my pull requests even suspected I introduced them intentionally to check if code was being reviewed carefully. I am not that treacherous though and the reason was actually more mundane than that. I just did not see them. I did turn on the “View White Space” option in VS (which btw. made me hate trailing spaces even more) and started seeing all the trailing whitespaces introduced by other people but not by myself. The truth is that if you set Visual Studio to use the dark theme it is often hard to see a single trailing whitespace even with the “View White Space” option turned on. You would think that fixing all the trailing whitespaces in a project would fix the problem but I don’t think it actually would. Firstly, typically you don’t want to touch code that is not relevant to your change. Secondly, even if you fixed it as a separate change (which is actually not that difficult with regular expressions) you will inadvertently introduce a trailing whitespace or two in your very next commit. If you want to be careful and are using git you can do git diff {--cached} and it will highlight trailing whitespaces like this:
It’s not the best experience though. You need to leave your editor to see if you have any problems and if you do you need to “map” the diff to your code to find all the lines that need to be fixed. This was driving me crazy so I decided to do something about this. The idea was to show trailing whitespaces in a visible way directly in the editor as soon as you introduced them. This is actually quite easy to do for Visual Studio – you just create an extensibility project (note you have to have Visual Studio SDK installed) – New Project, Template -> Visual C# -> Extensibility and select “Editor Text Adorment – modify a few lines and you are done. It literally took me no more than 2 hours to hack together an extension that does it. It highlights all the trailing whitespaces and dynamically checks if you have any trailing whitespaces in front of your cursor when you type – if you do it will highlight them too. This is how your VS looks like if you have trailing whitespaces:
I did use this extension for the past three days (extensive QA rules!) and shared it with my colleague (the one who would before always complain about me introducing trailing whitespaces). It worked and did not feel obtrusive (granted we do not have a lot of trailing whitespaces in the projects we work on but it turned out we do have more than we thought we had). Now, if you are a crusader for trailing-whitespace-free code, you can try it too. (Actually, you can try it even if you aren’t.) I posted this extension on the VS gallery. You can just download the .vsix and double click it to install, or you can install it directly from VS by going to Tools->Extensions and Updates, selecting “Online” on the left side, typing the name (or just “Flagger”) and clicking install.
If you have too many whitespaces or just think it does not work for you you can uninstall or disable the extension by going to Tools -> Extensions and Updates find the Trailing Space Flagger in the installed extensions and click the “Remove” or “Disable” button:
As usual, the code is open source – you can find it on github.